[108][109], Common symptoms of the flu such as fever, headaches, and fatigue are the result of the huge amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (such as interferon or tumor necrosis factor) produced from influenza-infected cells. [27], It can be difficult to distinguish between the common cold and influenza in the early stages of these infections. The Sicilian Senate asked a well-known Palermitan physician named Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia to help combat the epidemic in an advisory capacity, which he accepted. This is called antigenic drift, which slowly creates an increasing variety of strains until one evolves that can infect people who are immune to the pre-existing strains. [149] At home, this can be done effectively with a diluted chlorine bleach. [56] Dr. Thomas Short described treatments for the 1557 influenza as having included gargling "rose water, quinces, mulberries, and sealed earth." These studies help in developing influenza countermeasures; for example, a better understanding of the body's immune system response helps vaccine development, and a detailed picture of how influenza invades cells aids the development of antiviral drugs. It was introduced into English in the mid-eighteenth century during a pan-European epidemic. [291] Infected pigs can lose up to 12 pounds of body weight over a three- to four-week period. [6][7] The 1557 flu saw governments, for possibly the first time, inviting physicians to instill bureaucratic organization into epidemic responses. [69] European missionaries suspected such severe epidemics among the native populations to be a form of divine punishment,[68] and referred to the outbreaks of pleurisy and dysentery among the natives in Bahia to be "the sword of God's wrath." ", "The challenge of avian influenza to the veterinary community", "Low pathogenicity (LPAI) and highly pathogenic (HPAI) avian influenza in turkeys and chicken", "Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia", "Avian influenza – a pandemic waiting to happen? Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for a large variety of influenza A. Influenza arrived in the Kingdom of Sicily in June[22] at Palermo,[4] whence it spread across the island. [282][283], HPAI A(H5N1) is an avian disease and there is no evidence suggesting efficient human-to-human transmission of HPAI A(H5N1). Vaccines can cause the immune system to react as if the body were actually being infected, and general infection symptoms (many cold and flu symptoms are just general infection symptoms) can appear, though these symptoms are usually not as severe or long-lasting as influenza. Anthropologist Henry F. Dobyns described a 1557 epidemic of influenza in Ecuador in which European and Native populations were both left sick with severe coughing. [15][205][220][221] This pandemic has been described as "the greatest medical holocaust in history" and may have killed as many people as the Black Death. [97][101] Avian influenza viruses can survive indefinitely when frozen. [292], In 2009, a swine-origin H1N1 virus strain commonly referred to as "swine flu" caused the 2009 flu pandemic, but there is no evidence that it is endemic to pigs (i.e. In contrast, the highly lethal H5N1 strain binds to receptors that are mostly found deep in the lungs. RNA tends to be single stranded but in special cases it is double. [185] H5N1 exhibits seasonality in both humans and birds.[186][187]. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. [27] The length of time the virus will persist on a surface varies, with the virus surviving for one to two days on hard, non-porous surfaces such as plastic or metal, for about fifteen minutes on dry paper tissues, and only five minutes on skin. Newly synthesized viral proteins are either secreted through the Golgi apparatus onto the cell surface (in the case of neuraminidase and hemagglutinin, step 5b) or transported back into the nucleus to bind vRNA and form new viral genome particles (step 5a). [74] For example, the influenza A genome contains 11 genes on eight pieces of RNA, encoding for 11 proteins: hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), nucleoprotein (NP), M1 (matrix 1 protein), M2, NS1 (non-structural protein 1), NS2 (other name is NEP, nuclear export protein), PA, PB1 (polymerase basic 1), PB1-F2 and PB2. Egypt, which had been conquered by the Ottoman Empire around 40 years prior, became an access point for influenza to travel south through the Red Sea along shipping routes. Influenza remained endemic in Europe and England, where it returned in waves over the following years. [36], The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) maintains an up-to-date summary of available laboratory tests. At the time, the Ottoman Empire's territory included most of the Balkans and Bulgaria. [62] This type of influenza mutates at a rate 2–3 times slower than type A[63] and consequently is less genetically diverse, with only one influenza B serotype. [146][147], Since influenza spreads through both aerosols and contact with contaminated surfaces, surface sanitizing may help prevent some infections. Brainerd, E. and M. Siegler (2003), "The Economic Effects of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Historical annual reformulations of the influenza vaccine, United States influenza statistics by flu season, "Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses", "Up to 650 000 people die of respiratory diseases linked to seasonal flu each year", "Types of Influenza Viruses Seasonal Influenza (Flu)", "Novel Influenza D virus: Epidemiology, pathology, evolution and biological characteristics", "Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices – United States, 2019–20 Influenza Season", "The value of neuraminidase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of seasonal influenza: a systematic review of systematic reviews", "Effectiveness of oseltamivir in adults: a meta-analysis of published and unpublished clinical trials", "Reassessing the Global Mortality Burden of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic", "World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic", "Time lines of infection and disease in human influenza: a review of volunteer challenge studies", "Comparison of influenza type A and B with COVID-19: A global systematic review and meta-analysis on clinical, laboratory and radiographic findings", "Acute fever and petechial rash associated with influenza A virus infection", "Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza", "Clinical signs and symptoms predicting influenza infection", 10.7326/0003-4819-139-5_part_1-200309020-00007, "Information for Clinicians on Influenza Virus Testing", "Rapid Diagnostic Testing for Influenza: Information for Clinical Laboratory Directors", "Hospitalized Patients with 2009 H1N1 Influenza in the United States, April–June 2009", "Transcript of virtual press conference with Gregory Hartl, Spokesperson for H1N1, and Dr Nikki Shindo, Medical Officer, Global Influenza Programme, World Health Organization", "Report Finds Swine Flu Has Killed 36 Children", "Guide for considering influenza testing when influenza viruses are circulating in the community", "Characterization of a novel influenza virus in cattle and swine: proposal for a new genus in the Orthomyxoviridae family", "Cocirculation of two distinct genetic and antigenic lineages of proposed influenza D virus in cattle", "Influenza D virus in cattle, France, 2011–2014", "An open receptor-binding cavity of hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein from newly-identified Influenza D Virus: Basis for its broad cell tropism", "Genomic and evolutionary characterization of a novel influenza-C-like virus from swine", "Serological evidence for the presence of influenza D virus in small ruminants", "Detection of influenza C virus but not influenza D virus in Scottish respiratory samples", "Avian Influenza: Molecular Mechanisms of Pathogenesis and Host Range", "The evolution of human influenza viruses", "Epidemiology of WHO-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) infection", "Update: WHO-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection, November 2003-May 2008", "Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome", "Asian Lineage Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus", "Origin and Molecular Characteristics of a Novel 2013 Avian Influenza A(H6N1) Virus Causing Human Infection in Taiwan", "Efficacy of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluororibosides against influenza A and B viruses in ferrets", "Comparison of the mutation rates of human influenza A and B viruses", "Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses", "Epidemiology and pathogenesis of influenza", "Antigenic and genetic characterization of influenza C viruses which caused two outbreaks in Yamagata City, Japan, in 1996 and 1998", "The pathology of influenza virus infections", 10.1146/annurev.pathmechdis.3.121806.154316, "Clinical features of influenza C virus infection in children", "Influenza C and D Viruses Package Eight Organized Ribonucleoprotein Complexes", "Ultracentrifugation deforms unfixed influenza A virions", "Large-scale sequencing of human influenza reveals the dynamic nature of viral genome evolution", "Sialobiology of influenza: molecular mechanism of host range variation of influenza viruses", "New world bats harbor diverse influenza A viruses", "A distinct lineage of influenza A virus from bats", "Visualizing infection of individual influenza viruses", "The M2 proton channels of influenza A and B viruses", "Assembly and budding of influenza virus", "Rates of spontaneous mutation among RNA viruses", "Homologous recombination as an evolutionary force in the avian influenza A virus", "Bioinformatics studies of Influenza A hemagglutinin sequence data indicate recombination-like events leading to segment exchanges", "[Diagnosis and Treatment of influenza – clinical investigation on viral shedding in children with influenza]", "Prolonged influenza virus infection during lymphocytopenia and frequent detection of drug-resistant viruses", "Inactivation of influenza A viruses in the environment and modes of transmission: a critical review", "The spread of influenza and other respiratory viruses: complexities and conjectures", "Characterization of infectious aerosols in health care facilities: an aid to effective engineering controls and preventive strategies", "Influenza Virus Infectivity Is Retained in Aerosols and Droplets Independent of Relative Humidity", "Survival of influenza virus on banknotes", "Low plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone in patients with acute influenza", "Pathology, molecular biology, and pathogenesis of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans", "H5N1 Virus Attachment to Lower Respiratory Tract", "Human and avian influenza viruses target different cells in the lower respiratory tract of humans and other mammals", "Interleukin-1 is responsible for acute lung immunopathology but increases survival of respiratory influenza virus infection", "Genomic analysis of increased host immune and cell death responses induced by 1918 influenza virus", "Current and future antiviral therapy of severe seasonal and avian influenza", "Vaccines against influenza WHO position paper", "CDC launches universal flu vaccination recommendation", Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, "Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults", "Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children", "Influenza vaccine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)", "Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with asthma", "Influenza vaccination for immunocompromised patients: systematic review and meta-analysis by etiology", "Association between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: a meta-analysis", "What, in Fact, Is the Evidence That Vaccinating Healthcare Workers against Seasonal Influenza Protects Their Patients?

パン 2次発酵 冷蔵庫, すみっこぐらし パソコン アダプター, バックランプ 配線 色, 昼顔 乃里子 嫌い, バイト 外国人と関わる 東京, キーケース おしゃれ レディース, 都 道府県 女子駅伝 エントリー, K-lite Codec Pack, 黒い砂漠モバイル サーバー に 接続 できない, 多肉植物 下の葉 枯れる, 遊戯王 攻撃を防ぐ カード, 蛍光色 スニーカー パリピ, Windows10 かな 英数 切り替え, テニス ブランド マーク, ホンダ アメリカン 250 レブル, 夏ファッション メンズ 海外, ニトリ 壁面つっぱり物干し 口コミ, 結婚式 プロフィールムービー 曲, て Xi Ba, Line トーク バックアップ 進まない, 七つの大罪 名言 メリオダス, 出雲 グリーンホテルモーリス アメニティ, イラレ 楕円 変形, ステップワゴン Mopナビ交換 Rp, 君津 アクアスタジオ 心霊, Jr東日本 特急列車 一覧, チェ ジウ 出産, す みすみ 150, 一 番 長い 複合語, しらほし 声 合っ て ない, 五段動詞 一段動詞 見分け方,